Sara requires 2100 kcalories each day. Currently, she is consuming between 2200 and 2300. What is her state of energy balance?
Positive
When someone is in severe negative energy balance, what serves as the body’s primary energy source?
Adipose Tissue
If John wants to lose one pound of body fat, how many kcalories will he have to expend in activity and/or omit from his usual intake?
3,500 kcalories
What happens when a person increases his or her energy intake?
There is usually a corresponding increase in body weight.
Negative energy balance is when?
Energy intake is less than (<) energy consumption
One pound of stored body fat is equivalent to about _____ kcal.
3500
You have gained weight, and your adipocytes are filling with triglycerides. This is called:
Hypertrophic growth
What is the process called when adipocytes grow in number?
Hyperplastic growth
What happens when a person loses body fat?
Adipocytes shrink in size
Which type of fat found deposited between internal organs and the torso is otherwise known as intra-abdominal fat?
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT)
What is the physiological response to having eaten enough called?
Satiety
How is energy intake regulated?
By specific neural connections to and within the brain
What “control center” in the body responds to hunger and satiety cues?
Hypothalmus
How do neurotransmitters differ from hormones?
They regulate activities mainly in the central nervous system
What primarily influences short-term food intake?
Neural and hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
What happens when the brain releases anabolic neurotransmitters?
Weight gain is promoted
What is the branch of medicine that is concerned with treating obesity and obesity-related conditions called?
Bariatrics
Gastric banding involves?
A and C (Reducing the size of the stomach, and creating a small stomach pouch)
All of the following statements about gastric bypass surgery are true except
gastric bypass reroutes the GI tract to bypass the stomach.
Experts recommend that patients be considered for bariatric surgery only if they have a BMI of?
≥40 kg/m2 or ≥35 kg/m2 with a serious weight-related medical condition.
How much food can the stomach hold after gastric banding?
2-3 Tablespoons
Which of the following is not a symptom of dumping syndrome, a possible side effect of gastric bypass?
Hyperglycemia
A rise in what in the blood following a meal seems to stimulate satiety?
Glucose and amino acids
What two foods are good sources of tryptophan and thus may promote both satiety and sleepiness?
Turkey and dairy products
Why would 2 cups of grapes increase satiety more than ¼ cup of raisins?
The volume of grapes is greater than that of raisins
What recently discovered hormone appears to increase food intake by signaling the release of anabolic neurotransmitters?
Ghrelin
Which hormone whose level is increased after tryptophan intake helps people feel calm and relaxed?
Seratonin
_____ can be defined as the longing or desire for food.
Appetitie
Melanie is pregnant and is having a craving for chocolate brownies. What do scientists think may be causing her to crave the brownies?
Scientist do not have a clear explanation.
Which of the following food choices reflect(s) the most commonly craved foods?
Hot fudge sundae and nuts
All of the following contribute to causing food cravings except
Too much sleep
What do the appearance, taste, and aroma of food stimulate?
Appetite
What are the three main components of total energy expenditure?
Basal metabolism, physical activity, and thermic effect of food.
Shivering when you are cold at an event outdoors is an example of:
Nonexcercise activity thermogenesis
About how much of one’s total energy expenditure is due to one’s basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
50-70 percent
The majority of Total energy expenditure (TEE) is accounted for by
Adaptive thermogenesis
Basal metabolism is the energy expended to sustain all the following functions except?
Digestion
In order to use the Harris-Benedict equation to calculate an individual’s Resting energy expenditure (REE), you will need all of the following except the individual’s:
Activity level
What is the definition of resting energy expenditure (REE)?
The amount of kcalories required for a 24-hour period by the body during a non-active period
What is the Harris-Benedict equation used to calculate?
Resting energy expenditure(REE)
What two factors are not accounted for in the formula for calculating one’s resting energy expenditure (REE)?
Physical fitness and body composition
Even though they are the same age and have the same height and weight, Matt has more lean mass than Rob. Which of the following is true in this case?
Matt has a higher metabolic rate than rob
Your Asian-American, female client is 25 years old, weighs 110 pounds, and is 61 inches tall. According to the Harris-Benedict equation, her REE (in kcal/day) is:
1296
Sheila is 20 and her mother, Donna, is 50 years of age. Which statement accurately describes the relationship between their basal metabolic rates (BMR)?
Donna’s BMR is 4 to 10% less than Sheila’s.
What effect does hyperthyroidism have on basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
It causes BMR to increase
Why is it difficult to lose weight by simply eating fewer kcalories?
The body’s response to fewer calories is to reduce the BMR
Physical activity can be quite variable, accounting for, at most, _____% of TEE.
30
Which of the following is a list of energy expenditure factors arranged in order, left to right, from the one that requires the most to the one that requires the fewest kcalories?
Basal metabolic rate, energy for physical activity, thermic effect of food
What is the energy expenditure called the “thermic effect of food” used for?
Digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and storage of nutrients following a meal
Ramón consumed 2700 kcalories yesterday. What was his thermic effect of food (TEF) estimated to be?
135-270 kcalories
Which food combination would have the highest thermic effect of food (TEF)?
6 ounces of roast turkey, baked sweet potato, and skim milk
What does indirect calorimetry measure?
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Which technique is considered to be the “gold standard” for estimating total energy expenditure (TEE)?
Use of doubly labeled water
Stan participated in a scientific study in which he had measurements of oxygen and hydrogen taken. What did Stan experience?
Use of doubly labeled water
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What is the definition of “obesity”?
Abundance of body fat
Juan-Juan is an elite athlete who runs a marathon 3-5 times each year. Would relying on her BMI to assess body weight be appropriate?
No, because she has a high lean mass relative to fat.
What is the approximate BMI for a person who weighs 220 pounds and is 5 feet 11 inches tall?
31 kg/m2
Your client is 69 inches tall and weighs 185 pounds. His BMI is?
27.3
Assessing your client’s BMI (69 inches, 175 pounds), you find that she is?
Underweight
What is considered to be the healthy range for an adult’s BMI?
18.5-24.9 kg/m2
Your female client has 28 percent body fat. She is
Normal
What body fat percentages for males and females, respectively, indicate obesity?
males, > 25%; females, > 33%
What principle is hydrostatic weighting based upon?
The more fat a person has, the less dense, and the they weight under water
What is the technique for determining body composition that relies on measuring the conduction of weak electric currents by adipose and lean tissue called?
Bioelectrical impedance (BIA)
Which body composition assessment method is considered the “gold standard”?
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
What are the characteristics of central adiposity?
Accumulation of adipose tissue in the abdominal region
What type of obesity is associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension?
Central adiposity
Ryan has a waist circumference of 43 inches and a hip circumference of 40. What might a clinician conclude about Ryan?
He has central adiposity
Approximately what percentage of adults in the United States are classified as obese?
35%
By approximately how many kcalories has the daily energy intake of American adults increased over the last 40 years?
200-300
What have researchers found when studying portion sizes?
When larger portions are served people tend to eat more
A super-sized “value” fast-food meal can provide _____ of the calories required in a day.
More than half
What percentage of adults and children, respectively, are estimated to eat fast food daily?
37, 42 percent
Choose the list that correctly orders the following groups of Americans from the greatest prevalence of obesity (left) to the least (right).
African americans, hispanic, and white
What type of relationship is there between the level of physical activity and the risk of being overweight?
Inverse
If Sal added an extra mile of walking to his routine every day for one month, how much weight could he expect to lose by making only this change?
One pound
Which of the following recommendations is not included in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans?
Every U.S. adult should get 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity activity twice a week.
According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, how much time, at a minimum, should children spend being physically active per week?
60 minutes a day, preferably 7 days a week
What is the definition of moderate-intensity physical activity?
Exertion that is 3.0-5.9 times as intense as rest
What have researchers learned about the causes of obesity from studying identical twins separated at birth?
Genetics contributes 50% risk, lifestyle contributes 50% risk
What hormone, discovered in mice in 1994, is thought to be a potent satiety signal
Leptin
Why hasn’t the hormone originally thought to be a potent satiety signal in mice been a miracle cure for obesity in people?
Few humans actually have a deficiency of this hormone
What does the set point theory suggest with regard to the body’s regulation of weight?
When the amount of adipose tissue increases beyond a “set point” a signal causes food intake to decrease and/or energy expenditure to increase.
Which tissues generate signals communicating information about the body’s energy reserves?
Brain and adipose tissue
Which of the following hormones appears to work in opposition to leptin?
Adiponectin
James is 5’8″ and weighs 235 pounds. What total level of weight loss is considered a realistic goal for James?
12-24 pounds
If Lynn, who now weighs 170 pounds, achieves the recommended rate of weight loss, what will she weigh (in pounds) in 8 weeks?
154-162
Which of these foods are considered high-energy-density foods?
Brownies, candy bars, crackers with cheese
Maria has lost 30 pounds. How many fewer kcalories does she now need every day just to maintain her new, lower body weight?
240
Typically, what is the ingredient that replaces the fat in low-fat snack products?
Refined carbohydrates
What accounts for much of the initial weight loss associated with a low-carbohydrate diet?
Loss of stored glycogen, and associated water
What are the long-term weight loss differences between those following low-carbohydrate diets and those following low-fat diets?
Those on low-carbohydrate diets lose the most.
What is most likely to be lacking in low-carbohydrate diets?
Essential macronutrients, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals
Adipocytes decrease in number as an individual loses weight.
False
An individual is satiated when he or she has satisfied his/her hunger.
True
Expansion of the stomach signals satiety to the brain.
True
Obese individuals tend to have larger stomachs than lean individuals.
True
Bariatric surgery is designed only for those with serious medical problems.
False
An elevated body temperature temporarily increases your BMR.
True
Loss of body tissue associated with fasting and starvation increases your basal metabolic rate.
False
Direct calorimetry measures the exchange of oxygen intake and carbon dioxide output.
False
Direct calorimetry is inexpensive to do and routinely used by registered dietitians in a practice setting.
False
The energy required to process food is called the processing load.
False
A BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater is indicative of obesity.
True
DEXA uses X-ray beams to assess body composition.
True
Hydrostatic weighing uses a sealed chamber to measure air displacement.
False
Central adiposity is characterized by an apple shape.
True
Central obesity is more common in men and is characterized by subcutaneous fat deposits in the hips and thighs.
False
The waist-to-hip ratio or waist circumference can be used to determine one’s body fat distribution pattern.
True
Nutrition: Chapter 8